TShark Cheatsheet



Published: 2019-09-13 12:40:29 +0000
Categories: BASH,

Language

BASH

Description

Ever since I discovered it, I've preferred tshark as a means of extracting information and stats from a packet capture, particularly when that information needs to be communicated onwards via email - it's far better to provide simple tabulated data than 40 odd screenshots trying to highlight what you mean.

TShark uses the same underlying libraries as Wireshark, so you get the benefit of it's dissectors allowing you to easily filter by traffic type (-Y "ssh"), or to build more advanced filters

There's no way any list of examples could ever be exhaustive, but this list is intended to provide various examples containing some nuts and bolts which you can piece together to create useful commands (most examples exclude basics like -e ip.src for brevity's sake

If you're wanting to build a new command based on some field you can see in wireshark, the easiest way to find out the name to pass to tshark, is just to filter by it in wireshark and then pinch the name out of the filter field

Some of these examples are lifted, almost directly, from my PAS project, others from my own notes

Based On

Snippet

### General

# Outputting multiple fields
#
# Just add an additional -e with the field:
tshark -r $PCAP -T fields -e ip.dst -e tcp.dstport | sort | uniq -c

# To add the time of the frame use -e frame.time_epoch
# For tcp packet type, use tcp.flags (output is hex)
# or if preferred:
# -e tcp.flags.ack -e tcp.flags.push etc

### IP

# List out destinations observed 
tshark -r $PCAP -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c

# List out dest ports observed
tshark -r $PCAP -T fields -e tcp.dstport | sort | uniq -c
tshark -r $PCAP -T fields -e udp.dstport | sort | uniq -c

# List out destinations observed for a given dest port
tshark -r $PCAP -Y "udp.dstport == 53" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c

# List out destinations observed fro a given source port
tshark -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.srcport == 80" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c

### HTTP

# Extract a list of HTTP host headers
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "http.host" -T fields -e http.host | sort | uniq -c

# Extract a list of HTTP requests made, with common headers
tshark -q -r "$PCAP" -Y "http.host" -T fields -e frame.time_epoch -e ip.src -e ip.dst -e ipv6.src -e ipv6.dst \
-e http.host -e http.request.method -e http.request.uri -e http.referer -e http.user_agent -e http.cookie -e http.authorization

# Extract a list of HTTP Referer headers
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "http.host" -T fields -e http.referer | sort | uniq -c

# Extract a list of User-agents (to help identify devices)
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "http.host" -T fields -e http.user_agent | sort | uniq -c

# Other HTTP headers can all be dumped too, http.x_forwarded_for etc. Won't provide exhaustive list here

# Output a list of observed HTTP status codes
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "http.response" -T fields -e http.response.code | sort | uniq -c

# Output a list of host headers observed in POST requests only
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "http.request.method == POST" -T fields -e http.host | sort | uniq -c

### SSL/TLS

# Extract a list of SNI names
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "ssl.handshake" -T fields -e ssl.handshake.extensions_server_name | sort | uniq -c

# Extract supported ciphersuites from the handshake
tshark -q -r "$PCAP" -Y "ssl.handshake" -T fields -e ssl.handshake.ciphersuite | sort | uniq -c

# Extract observed cert Common Names
tshark -q -r "$PCAP" -Y "ssl.handshake" -T fields -e x509sat.printableString | sort | uniq -c

### DNS Lookups

# DNS servers used
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "dns" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c

# Names queried
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "dns" -T fields -e dns.qry.name | sort | uniq -c

# Count responses per sec (change "1" for longer interval)
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(dns.flags.rcode)dns.flags.rcode"

# Count SERVFAIL responses per sec
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(dns.flags.rcode)dns.flags.rcode == 2"

# Count NXDOMAIN responses per sec
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(dns.flags.rcode)dns.flags.rcode == 3"

# Count REFUSED responses per sec
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(dns.flags.rcode)dns.flags.rcode == 5"

# Get the value of RCODE for your desired response filter from RFC1035, RFC2136, RFC2845 etc

# Grab any EDNS Client Subnet (ECS) infomation
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "dns" -T fields -e dns.opt.client.addr4 | sort | uniq -c

### Communication Channels

# List out XMPP servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 5222" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# OpenVPN servers observed
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "openvpn" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out SMTP servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 25" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out TLS SMTP servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 465" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out IMAP servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 143" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out TLS IMAP servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 993" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out POP3 servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 110" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# List out TLS POP3 servers communicated with
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp.dstport == 995" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# Extract SMTP auth information (will only work on non TLS connections)
tshark -q -r "$PCAP" -Y "smtp.req" -T fields -e smtp.auth.username -e smtp.auth.password | sort | uniq -c

### SSH

# SSH servers observed
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "ssh" -T fields -e ip.dst | sort | uniq -c 

# Verify what prime was used for the Diffie-Helman
tshark -r $PCAP -q -Y "ssh.dh.p" -T fields -e ssh.dh.p

### Connection Stats

# Calculate bytes per second to an IP
#
# change stat,1 to stat,10 for per 10 seconds etc
tshark -r $PCAP -z io,stat,1,ip.addr==$IP -q

# Count number of retransmissions/dup acks per second
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message"

# Count just Dup acks
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message matches \"Duplicate ACK .\""

# Count reports of lost segments
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message matches \"Previous segment lost .\""

# Count instances of ACKing lost segments
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message matches \"ACKed lost segment .\""

# Count Re-Transmissions
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message matches \". retransmission .\""

# Track RTT
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp" -T fields -e "tcp.analysis.ack_rtt" | egrep -v -e '^$'

# Calculate average RTT across entire pcap
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp" -T fields -e "tcp.analysis.ack_rtt" | egrep -v -e '^$' | awk '
BEGIN {total=0;count=0;max=0;min=99} {if ($0 > max) max=$0 end; if ($0<min) min=$0 end; total+=$1; count+=1}
END{mean=(total/count); printf "%.0f,%.8f,%.8f,%.8f\n", count,max,min,mean}'

# Track TCP Window changes
tshark -q -r $PCAP -z "io,stat,1,COUNT(expert.message)expert.message matches \".Window update.\""

# Output 5 smallest observed TCP windows
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp" -T fields -e "tcp.window_size_value" | sort -n | uniq -c | head -n 5

# Output 5 largest observed TCP windows
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y "tcp" -T fields -e "tcp.window_size_value" | sort -nr | uniq -c | head -n 5

### IPv4 encapsulated IPv6 

# Identifying IPv6 tunneled over IPv4 (https://projects.bentasker.co.uk/jira_projects/browse/PAS-10.html)
tshark -q -r $PCAP -Y '((ip.version == 4 and ipv6.version != 6) or (ipv6.version == 6) and ip.version !=6)' -T fields -e frame.time_epoch -e ip.src -e ip.dst -e ipv6.src -e ipv6.dst

Requires

License

BSD-3-Clause

Keywords

tshark, cli, captures, packet, analysis, shell, ethereal, wireshark,

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